Data Interpretation - Bar Charts

The following bar graph shows the Income and Expenditures (in million US $) of five companies in the year 2001. The percent profit or loss of a company is given by

% Profit/Loss = Income - Expenditure x 100
Expenditure

Income and Expenditure (in million US $) of five companies in the year 2001.

1. 

The companies M and N together had a percentage of profit/loss of?

A. 12% loss
B. 10% loss
C. 10% profit
D. There was no loss or profit

Answer: Option D

Explanation:

Total income of Companies M and N together

    = (35 + 50) million US $

    = 85 million US $

Total expenditure of Companies M and N together

    = (45 + 40) million US $

    = 85 million US $.

Therefore Percent Profit/Loss of companies M and N together

% Profit/Loss = ( 85 - 85 x 100 ) = 0%.
85

Thus, there was neither loss nor profit for companies M and N together.


2. 

In 2001, what was the approximate percentage of profit/loss of all the five Companies taken together?

A. 5% profit
B. 6.5% profit
C. 4% loss
D. 7% loss

Answer: Option A

Explanation:

Total income of all five companies

    = (35 + 50 + 40 + 40 + 50) million US $

    = 215 million US $.

Total expenditure of all five companies

    = (45 + 40 + 45 + 30 + 45) million US $

    = 205 million US $.

Therefore % Profit = [ (215 - 205) x 100 ] % = 4.88% ~= 5%.
205


3. 

Which company earned the maximum percentage profit in the year 2001?

A. M
B. N
C. P
D. Q

Answer: Option D

Explanation:

The percentage profit/loss in the year 2001 for various comapanies are:

For M = [ (35 - 45) x 100 ] % = -22.22%   i.e.,   Loss = 22.22%.
45

For N = [ (50 - 40) x 100 ] % = 25%   i.e.,   Profit = 25%.
40

For P = [ (40 - 45) x 100 ] % = -11.11%   i.e.,   Loss = 11.11%.
45

For Q = [ (40 - 30) x 100 ] % = 33.33%   i.e.,   Profit = 33.33%.
30

For R = [ (50 - 45) x 100 ] % = 11.11%   i.e.,   Profit = 11.11%.
45

Clearly, the Company Q earned the maximum profit in 2001.


4. 

For Company R, if the expenditure had increased by 20% in year 2001 from year 2000 and the company had earned profit of 10% in 2000, what was the Company's income in 2000 (in million US $)?

A. 35.75
B. 37.25
C. 38.5
D. 41.25

Answer: Option D

Explanation:

Let the expenditure of Company R in 2000 be x million US $.

Then, expenditure of Company R in 2001 = ( 120 x x ) million US $.
100

Therefore 120x = 45     =>     x = 37.5.
100

i.e., expenditure of Company R in 2000 = 37.5 million US $.

Let the income of Company R in 2000 be I million US $.

Then, 10 = (I - 37.5) x 100     [ Ref %Profit in 2000 = 10%]
37.5

    => I - 37.5 = 3.75

    => I = 41.25

i.e., Income of Company R in 2000 = 41.25 million US $.


5. 

If the income of Company Q in 2001 was 10% more than its income in 2000 and the Company had earned a profit of 20% in 2000, then its expenditure in 2000 (in million US $) was?

A. 28.28
B. 30.30
C. 32.32
D. 34.34

Answer: Option B

Explanation:

Let the income of Company Q in 2001 = x million US $.

Then, income of Company in 2001 = ( 110 x x ) million US $.
100

Therefore 110x = 40     =>     x = ( 400 ) .
100 11

i.e., income of Company Q in 2000 = ( 400 ) million US $.
11

Let the expenditure of Company Q in 2000 be E million US $.

Then, 20 = [(400/11) - E] x 100     [Ref %Profit = 20% ]
E

=>     20 = [ ( 400 ) - 1 ] x 100
11E

=>     E = 400 x 100 = 30.30.
11 120

Therefore Expenditure of Company Q in 2000 = 30.30 million US $.