Logical Reasoning - Analyzing Arguments

Directions to Solve
Choose the statement that is best supported by the information given in the question passage.

There are no effective boundaries when it comes to pollutants. Studies have shown that toxic insecticides that have been banned in many countries are riding the wind from countries where they remain legal. Compounds such as DDT and toxaphene have been found in remote places like the Yukon and other Arctic regions.
This paragraph best supports the statement that
toxic insecticides such as DDT have not been banned throughout the world.
more pollutants find their way into polar climates than they do into warmer areas
studies have proven that many countries have ignored their own antipollution laws.
DDT and toxaphene are the two most toxic insecticides in the world.
even a worldwide ban on toxic insecticides would not stop the spread of DDT pollution.
Answer: Option
The support for this choice is in the second sentence, which states that in some countries, toxic insecticides are still legal. Choice b is incorrect because even though polar regions are mentioned in the paragraph, there is no support for the idea that warmer regions are not just as affected. There is no support for choice c. Choice d can be ruled out because there is nothing to indicate that DDT and toxaphene are the most toxic. Choice e is illogical.

The Fourth Amendment to the Constitution protects citizens against unreasonable searches and seizures. No search of a person's home or personal effects may be conducted without a written search warrant issued on probable cause. This means that a neutral judge must approve the factual basis justifying a search before it can be conducted.
This paragraph best supports the statement that the police cannot search a person's home or private papers unless they have
legal authorization
direct evidence of a crime.
read the person his or her constitutional rights.
a reasonable belief that a crime has occurred.
requested that a judge be present.
Answer: Option
The second and third sentence combine to give support to choice a. The statement stresses that there must be a judge's approval (i.e., legal authorization) before a search can be conducted. Choices b and d are wrong because it is not enough for the police to have direct evidence or a reasonable belief—a judge must authorize the search for it to be legal. Choices c and e are not mentioned in the passage.

Obesity is a serious problem in this country. Research suggests that obesity can lead to a number of health problems including diabetes, asthma, and heart disease. Recent research has even indicated that there may be a relationship between obesity and some types of cancer. Major public health campaigns that increase awareness and propose simple lifestyle changes that will, with diligence and desire, eliminate or least mitigate the incidence of obesity are a crucial first step in battling this critical problem.
This paragraph best supports the statement that
public health campaigns that raise consciousness and propose lifestyle changes are a productive way to fight obesity.
obesity is the leading cause of diabetes in our country.
people in our country watch too much television and do not exercise enough.
a decline in obesity would radically decrease the incidence of asthma.
fast-food restaurants and unhealthy school lunches contribute greatly to obesity.
Answer: Option
The support for this choice is in the last sentence, which states that major public health campaigns that increase awareness and propose lifestyle changes are important in our fight against obesity. Choice b can be ruled out because although the paragraph states that obesity can lead to diabetes, it doesn't tell us that it is the leading cause of this disease. Choices c and e might sound reasonable and true, but they are not supported in the paragraph. And although we are told that obesity has been connected to asthma, this fact is not quantified in any way, so choice d is also not supported by the information given.

Critical reading is a demanding process. To read critically, you must slow down your reading and, with pencil in hand, perform specific operations on the text. Mark up the text with your reactions, conclusions, and questions. When you read, become an active participant.
This paragraph best supports the statement that
critical reading is a slow, dull, but essential process
the best critical reading happens at critical times in a person's life.
readers should get in the habit of questioning the truth of what they read.
critical reading requires thoughtful and careful attention.
critical reading should take place at the same time each day.
Answer: Option
This answer is implied by the whole paragraph. The author stresses the need to read critically by performing thoughtful and careful operations on the text. Choice a is incorrect because the author never says that reading is dull. Choices b, c, and e are not supported by the paragraph.

Walk into any supermarket or pharmacy and you will find several shelves of products designed to protect adults and children from the sun. Additionally, a host of public health campaigns have been created, including National Skin Cancer Awareness Month, that warn us about the sun's damaging UV rays and provide guidelines about protecting ourselves. While warnings about the sun's dangers are frequent, a recent survey found that fewer than half of all adults adequately protect themselves from the sun.
This paragraph best supports the statement that
children are better protected from the sun's dangerous rays than adults
sales of sun protection products are at an all-time high.
adults are not heeding the warnings about the dangers of sun exposure seriously enough.
more adults have skin cancer now than ever before
there is not enough information disseminated about the dangers of sun exposure.
Answer: Option
The last sentence gives direct support for this response. Although children might be better protected from the sun than adults, the paragraph does not specifically cite statistics about children, so we can't know for sure, ruling out choice a. There is no evidence provided in the paragraph to support choices b and d. Choice e is incorrect since the last sentence tells us that warnings about the sun's dangers are frequent.