Logical Reasoning - Analyzing Arguments

Choose the statement that is best supported by the information given in the question passage.
1. 

For too long, school cafeterias, in an effort to provide food they thought would be appetizing to young people, mimicked fast-food restaurants, serving items such as burgers and fries, pizza, hot dogs, and fried chicken. School districts nationwide are now addressing this trend by incorporating some simple and inexpensive options that will make cafeteria lunches healthier while still appealing to students.
This paragraph best supports the statement that

A. school cafeterias have always emphasized nutritional guidelines over any other considerations.
B. young people would rather eat in a school cafeteria than a local fast-food restaurant.
C. school lunch menus are becoming healthier due to major new initiatives on the part of school districts.
D. it is possible to make school lunches both healthier and appealing without spending a great deal of money and undertaking a radical transformation.
E. vegetarian lunch options would greatly improve the nutritional value of the school lunch program.

Answer: Option D

Explanation:

The final sentence of the paragraph supports choice d. The other choices are not supported by the passage. Choice c may seem correct at first, but the paragraph states that the new initiatives are simple and inexpensive, not major. Choice e might seem to represent a truth, but vegetarian options are not discussed in this paragraph.

2. 

Forest fires feed on decades-long accumulations of debris and leap from the tops of young trees into the branches of mature trees. Fires that jump from treetop to treetop can be devastating. In old-growth forests, however, the shade of mature trees keeps thickets of small trees from sprouting, and the lower branches of mature trees are too high to catch the flames.
This paragraph best supports the statement that

A. forest fire damage is reduced in old-growth forests.
B. small trees should be cut down to prevent forest fires.
C. mature trees should be thinned out to prevent forest fires
D. forest fires do the most damage in old-growth forests.
E. old-growth forests have a larger accumulation of forest debris.

Answer: Option A

Explanation:

The last sentence provides direct support for choice a. The author never suggests that any trees should be cut down or thinned out, which eliminates choices b and c. Choice d contradicts the author's opinion. The author suggests that old growth forests have less debris, which rules out choice e.

3. 

During the last six years, the number of practicing physicians has increased by about 20%. During the same time period, the number of healthcare managers has increased by more than 600%. These percentages mean that many doctors have lost the authority to make their own schedules, determine the fees that they charge, and decide on prescribed treatments.
This paragraph best supports the statement that doctors

A. resent the interference of healthcare managers.
B. no longer have adequate training.
C. care a great deal about their patients.
D. are less independent than they used to be.
E. are making a lot less money than they used to make.

Answer: Option D

Explanation:

The author of this statement suggests that doctors are less independent. The author stresses that many doctors have lost authority. There is no support for the opinion that doctors resent the healthcare managers, however which rules out choice a. The doctors training is never mentioned (choice b). Doctors may care about their patients (choice c), but this information is not part of the paragraph. Choice e is not mentioned.

4. 

By the time they reach adulthood, most people can perform many different activities involving motor skills. Motor skills involve such diverse tasks as riding a bicycle, threading a needle, and cooking a dinner. What all these activities have in common is their dependence on precision and timing of muscular movement.
This paragraph best supports the statement that

A. most adults have not refined their motor skills.
B. all adults know how to ride a bicycle.
C. refined motor skills are specifically limited to adults.
D. children perform fewer fine motor activities in a day than adults do.
E. threading a needle is a precise motor skill.

Answer: Option E

Explanation:

The second sentence states that threading a needle involves motor skill. The other choices are not in the paragraph.

5. 

Most Reality TV centers on two common motivators: fame and money. The shows transform waitresses, hairdressers, investment bankers, counselors, and teachers, to name a few, from obscure figures to house-hold names. A lucky few successfully parlay their fifteen minutes of fame into celebrity. The luckiest stars of Reality TV also reap huge financial rewards for acts including eating large insects, marrying someone they barely know, and revealing their innermost thoughts to millions of people.
This paragraph best supports the statement that

A. the stars of Reality TV are interested in being rich and famous.
B. Reality TV is the best thing that has happened to network television in a long time.
C. for Reality TV stars, fame will last only as long as their particular television show.
D. traditional dramas and sitcoms are being replaced by Reality TV programming at an alarming rate.
E. Reality TV shows represent a new wave of sensationalistic, low quality programming.

Answer: Option A

Explanation:

This is expressed in the first sentence. Choices b, d, and e are not supported by the passage. Choice c is incorrect because the paragraph states that some Reality TV stars manage to parlay their fifteen minutes of fame into celebrity.