Logical Reasoning - Analyzing Arguments

Read the below passage carefully and answer the questions:

Giving children computers in grade school is a waste of money and teachers time. These children are too young to learn how to use computers effectively and need to spend time on learning the basics, like arithmetic and reading. After all, a baby has to crawl before she can walk.

1. 

Which of the following, if true, would strengthen the speaker's argument?

A. studies showing computers are expensive
B. research on the effect of computer games on children
C. examples of high school students who use computers improperly
D. proof that the cost of computers is coming down
E. evidence that using computers makes learning to read difficult

Answer: Option E

Explanation:

This evidence would back up the speaker's contention that young students should learn the basics before learning computers. Choices a and d, which are both about cost, would have no effect on the argument. Choices b and c are too vague.

2. 

Which of the following, if true, would weaken the speaker's argument?

A. a demonstration that computers can be used to teach reading and arithmetic
B. analysis of the cost-effectiveness of new computers versus repairing old computers
C. examples of adults who do not know how to use computers
D. recent grade reports of students in the computer classes
E. a visit to a classroom where computers are being used

Answer: Option A

Explanation:

If computers enhance the learning of arithmetic and reading, the speaker's argument is not as strong.

3. 

Which of the following methods of argument is used in the previous passage?

A. a specific example that illustrates the speaker's point
B. attacking the beliefs of those who disagree with the speaker
C. relying on an analogy to prove the speaker's point
D. displaying statistics that back up the speaker's point
E. comparing different methods of learning

Answer: Option C

Explanation:

The speaker uses analogies to compare crawling with learning arithmetic and reading and to compare walking with using a computer. The speaker is making the point that, in both cases, a child needs to learn one before learning the other.