Verbal Reasoning - Syllogism - Discussion

Discussion Forum : Syllogism - Syllogism 1 (Q.No. 2)
Directions to Solve

In each of the following questions two statements are given and these statements are followed by two conclusions numbered (1) and (2). You have to take the given two statements to be true even if they seem to be at variance from commonly known facts. Read the conclusions and then decide which of the given conclusions logically follows from the two given statements, disregarding commonly known facts.

• (A) If only (1) conclusion follows
• (B) If only (2) conclusion follows
• (C) If either (1) or (2) follows
• (D) If neither (1) nor (2) follows and
• (E) If both (1) and (2) follow.

2.

Statements: All the harmoniums are instruments. All the instruments are flutes.

Conclusions:

1. All the flutes are instruments.
2. All the harmoniums are flutes.

Only (1) conclusion follows
Only (2) conclusion follows
Either (1) or (2) follows
Neither (1) nor (2) follows
Both (1) and (2) follow
Explanation:
Discussion:
70 comments Page 1 of 7.

Yangdol said:   11 months ago
Let's analyse the given statements and draw conclusions based on them:.

Given Statements:.

1. All the harmoniums are instruments.
(This can be represented as: All Harmoniums (H) are Instruments (I)).

2. All the instruments are flutes.
(This can be represented as: All Instruments (I) are Flutes (F)).

Conclusions:.

1. All the flutes are instruments.
(This can be represented as: All Flutes (F) are Instruments (I)).

2. All the harmoniums are flutes.
(This can be represented as: All Harmoniums (H) are Flutes (F)).

Let's evaluate each conclusion:.
All the flutes are instruments.
This conclusion can be derived from the second statement (All instruments are flutes). So, it follows logically. (True).
All the harmoniums are flutes.

This conclusion cannot be derived from the given statements. We know that all harmoniums are instruments, and all instruments are flutes, but this doesn't necessarily mean that all harmoniums are flutes. (False).

So, the correct option is:

A) Only (1) conclusion follows.

Explanation:

The first conclusion (All the flutes are instruments) follows logically from the given statements because it is directly stated in the second premise.

However, the second conclusion (All the harmoniums are flutes) does not necessarily follow from the given statements. Just because all harmoniums are instruments and all instruments are flutes doesn't imply that all harmoniums are flutes. There could be other instruments besides flutes that harmoniums might fall under.

Hence, this conclusion is not valid.
(4)

Ravinder said:   5 years ago
@Hanuman.

Statements (both premises and conclusions) are represented as follows: Statement Notation
a) All S are P, SS-P
b) Some S are P, S-P
c) Some S are not P, S / PP
d) No S is P, SS / PP

RULES:

1) Conclusions are reached by connecting Notations. Two notations can be linked only through common linking terms. When the common linking term multiplies (becomes double from single), divides (becomes single from double) or remains double then the conclusion is arrived between terminal terms.

2) If both statements linked are having " signs, resulting conclusion carries " sign
3) Whenever statements having " and / signs are linked, resulting conclusion carries / sign.
4) Statement having / sign cannot be linked with another statement having / sign to derive any conclusion.

For this question:
By Raval notations HH -I II -F so HH - F follows.

Since it is satisfying all five rules of syllogism
1)A syllogism must contain exactly three terms, each of which is used in the same sense.
2)The middle term must be distributed in at least one premise.
3) If MAJOR or MINOR term is distributed in the conclusion, then it must be distributed in the premises.
4) No syllogism can have two negative premises.
5) If either premise is negative, the conclusion must be negative.

Asif said:   6 years ago
Very easy Simple trick for inner and outer circle problem.

If we move from inner to outer circle two conclusions are correct (all+some), whereas if we move from outer to inner only (some) conclusion is correct.

All flutes are instruments (we are moving from outer to inner so only "some" conclusion correct), all harmonious are flute (we are moving from inner to outer hence in conclusion wherever "all and some come that is correct).
(1)

Neil said:   7 years ago
According to the Directions to Solve:

Read the conclusions and then decide which of the given conclusions logically follows from the two given statements, "disregarding commonly known facts".

So, if we just consider the 2 given statements:
All the harmoniums are instruments.
All the instruments are flutes (Conclusion 1).
which means, All the harmoniums are flutes (Conclusion 2).

So, Both Conclusions should be correct.

Kachwal Jyothi sharma said:   9 years ago
There are some conditions in syllogism.

For ALL = 100, 50.
SOME = 50, 50.
NO = 100, 100.

In conclusion the weight cannot be increased than statement, it can be decreased but cannot be increased, So conclusion 1 is wrong.

And one more to be remember if statement consist +ve, +ve then conclusion must be +ve.

If statement consist +ve, -ve then conclusion must be -ve. If statement consist -ve, -ve then No conclusion.

Bharat said:   9 years ago
@All:

I don't think so. All A are B it also means some B are A.

So another implication is also possible for the question.

Statements: All the harmoniums are instruments. All the instruments are flutes.

For statement 1 the implication would be:

Some instruments are harmonium.
So some harmoniums are not flutes.

So no conclusion follows.

Anish said:   7 years ago
I think the answer is E.

The diagram in explanation shows only one situation that harmoniums are making a portion of instruments. But as per set theory, the complete set is also a subset of the given set. It can also be true that if all harmoniums are instruments, all instruments are also harmonium. Similarly in the second sentence.

In such case, option E is the answer.

Hanuman said:   5 years ago
@Ravinder, I learned Raval Notations, this is simple, fast and accurate. By Raval notations HH -I II -F , since common term (I) multiplies, so HH - F follows. Can Raval Notations can solve possibility type questions too, last time I was not able to crack IBPS Exam by two marks and I feel with knowledge of Raval Notations, I will have around 4 minutes extra

Deb Nc said:   3 years ago
Both the statement has instrument. That means All harmoniums and flutes are instrument. So, the biggest circle should be instrument.

E is not the answer because conclusion 1 is the reversed statement 2. It is not valid.

To get the conclusion, we will omit the same word from 1 & 2 statement. Then we will relate the remaining words from 2 statements.
(2)