Logical Reasoning - Statement and Assumption

In each question below is given a statement followed by three assumptions numbered I, II and III. You have to consider the statement and the following assumptions, decide which of the assumptions is implicit in the statement and choose your answer accordingly.

6. 

Statement: The Central Government has directed the State Governments to reduce government expenditure in view of the serious resource crunch and it may not be able to sanction any additional grant to the states for the next six months.

Assumptions:

  1. The State Governments are totally dependent on Central Government for its expenditures.
  2. The Central Government has reviewed the expenditure account of the State Government.
  3. The State Governments will abide by the directive.

A. None is implicit
B. Only II and III are implicit
C. Only III is implicit
D. All are implicit
E. None of these

Answer: Option B

Explanation:

Nothing about the sources of income of the State Governments is mentioned in the statement. So, I is not implicit. Since the Central Government has directed the State Governments to reduce expenditure, so II is implicit. Further, since the Central Government has refused any further grant to the State Governments for the next six months, it is quite clear that these Governments will abide by the directive. So, III is also implicit.

7. 

Statement: These apples are too cheap to be good.

Assumptions:

  1. When the apple crop is abundant, the prices go down.
  2. The lower the selling price, the inferior is the quality of the commodity.
  3. Very cheap apples are also good.

A. None is implicit
B. Only I and III are implicit
C. Only II is implicit
D. Only II and III are implicit
E. All are implicit

Answer: Option C

Explanation:

It is mentioned that the apples are so cheap that they cannot be good. This means that the prices of good apples are never too low and that very cheap apples are never good. So, neither I nor III is implicit. Assumption II clearly follows from the statement that apples are of inferior quality because they are cheap. So, it is implicit.

8. 

Statement: "All are cordially invited to attend the entertainment programme. It is free." - An announcement in a newspaper.

Assumptions:

  1. People generally do not go to entertainment programmes which are free.
  2. Some people, though interested in entertainment programmes, cannot afford purchasing the tickets.
  3. Generally, a free entertainment programme is of a good quality.

A. Only I is implicit
B. Only I and II are implicit
C. Only II is implicit
D. Only II and III are implicit
E. Only I and III are implicit

Answer: Option C

Explanation:

Since the announcement invites the people to the programme saying that it is free, so I is not implicit while II follows. The quality of the programme is not being talked about in the statement. So, III is not implicit.

9. 

Statement: Ravi decided to leave office at 4.00 p.m. to catch a flight to Bangalore departing at 6.00 p.m.

Assumptions:

  1. The flight to Bangalore may be delayed.
  2. He may be able to reach airport well before 6.00 p.m.
  3. He may get adequate time to search for a vehicle to go to the airport.

A. None is implicit
B. Only II is implicit
C. Only II and III are implicit
D. All are implicit
E. None of these

Answer: Option C

Explanation:

I cannot be assumed from the given statement and so it is not implicit. Also, knowing that his flight is scheduled to depart at 6 p.m., Ravi would leave accordingly, keeping enough time to search for a vehicle and to reach the airport well before time. So, both II and III are implicit.

10. 

Statement: "Put. a notice on the board that all the employees should come on time to office." - An officer tells his assistant.

Assumptions:

  1. All the employees come late.
  2. Employees read such notice on the board.
  3. Employees will follow the instructions.

A. Only I and II are implicit
B. Only III is implicit
C. Only II and III are implicit
D. Only I and III are implicit
E. All are implicit

Answer: Option C

Explanation:

The notice directs all the employees to come on time. This does not mean that all of them come late. So, I is not implicit. Since the officer orders the assistant to put the notice on the board, it is evident that the employees read such notice on the board. So, II is implicit. Also, the employees have to comply with the orders of the officer. So, III is implicit.