A thin cylindrical shell of internal diameter D is subject to an internal pressure 'p'. If σ_{y} is the yield stress of the material of the cylinder, then based on the maximum shear theory, the thickness of the cylinder will be (in kg/cm^{2}) is

There are ten instrument staions occupied in succession during a traverse survey. An observer makes equal error in each station, the magnitude of which is δ θ in each instance at all the stations. What is the probable error of the final bearing at the end of the traverse ?

At a certain station, the mean of the average temperature is 25°C and mean of the maximum daily temperature is 40°C. What is the airport reference temperature (ART) ?

The area between the two isohytes 45 cm and 55 cm is 100 km^{2}, and that between 55 cm and 65 cm is 150 km^{2}. What is the average depth of annual precipitation over the basin of 250 km^{2} ?