The Total pressure on the vertical face of a retaining wall of height h exerted by the retained earth weighing w per unit volume having an angle of surcharge α^{°}, is :

The stem of a cantilever retaining wall which retains earth level with top is 6 m. If the angle of repose and weight of the soil per cubic metre are 30° and 2000 kg respectively, the effective width of the stem at the bottom, is

If depth of slab is 10 cm, width of web 30 cm, depth of web 50 cm, centre to centre distance of beams 3 m, effective span of beams 6 m, the effective flange width of the beam, is