# Verbal Reasoning - Syllogism - Discussion

Discussion Forum : Syllogism - Syllogism 1 (Q.No. 1)

*Directions to Solve*

In each of the following questions two statements are given and these statements are followed by two conclusions numbered (1) and (2). You have to take the given two statements to be true even if they seem to be at variance from commonly known facts. Read the conclusions and then decide which of the given conclusions logically follows from the two given statements, disregarding commonly known facts.

Give answer:

- (A) If only (1) conclusion follows
- (B) If only (2) conclusion follows
- (C) If either (1) or (2) follows
- (D) If neither (1) nor (2) follows and
- (E) If both (1) and (2) follow.

1.

**Statements:** Some actors are singers. All the singers are dancers.

**Conclusions:**

- Some actors are dancers.
- No singer is actor.

Answer: Option

Explanation:

Discussion:

73 comments Page 2 of 8.
Ravi kumar said:
7 years ago

2nd Venn diagram shows that all actors are dancers. Then, why option A is correct?

(1)

Roshan said:
8 years ago

In second diagram. All actors are dancer comes out. And in first some actors are dancers. If the statement is not satisfying both the diagrams, then how we can say one is correct?

Please explain.

Please explain.

(1)

Dipesh said:
8 years ago

Please, anybody can explain this clearly? I am confused.

Shikha said:
8 years ago

@Deepthi.

Your concept is wrong. No need to find out conclusion, they already given in the question. In this chapter, the statement is given and the conclusion is also given we prove that conclusion is wrong or not. If the conclusion is wrong then you are right, or conclusion is right then you are wrong.

Notes: [ (All=some not, not) (some=no) (no=all, some) ]. Always remember this, it used in conclusion to proving right ya wrong. This is your opposite words.

For example statement 1: All hands are arms, some hands are skins.

Conclusion 1: some skins are arms.

2: All skins are arms.

Answer: draw a diagram for the help of statement. And prove the statement for the help of conclusion.

1: Some skins are arms (some change into no).

2: all skins are arms (all change into not / some not).

So, conclusion 1st is the correct answer.

Thank you, everybody.

Shikha.

Your concept is wrong. No need to find out conclusion, they already given in the question. In this chapter, the statement is given and the conclusion is also given we prove that conclusion is wrong or not. If the conclusion is wrong then you are right, or conclusion is right then you are wrong.

Notes: [ (All=some not, not) (some=no) (no=all, some) ]. Always remember this, it used in conclusion to proving right ya wrong. This is your opposite words.

For example statement 1: All hands are arms, some hands are skins.

Conclusion 1: some skins are arms.

2: All skins are arms.

Answer: draw a diagram for the help of statement. And prove the statement for the help of conclusion.

1: Some skins are arms (some change into no).

2: all skins are arms (all change into not / some not).

So, conclusion 1st is the correct answer.

Thank you, everybody.

Shikha.

Vidhya said:
8 years ago

Please explain the UP-UN METHOD in detail.

(1)

Shreyas Alagundi said:
8 years ago

METHOD TO SOVE THESE TYPE OF PROBLEMS

In Transformed RAVAL\'S NOTATION, each premise and the conclusion is written in abbreviated form, and then the conclusion is reached simply by connecting abbreviated premises.

NOTATION: Statements (both premises and conclusions) are represented as follows:

Statement Notation

a) All S are P SS-P

b) Some S are P S-P

c) Some S are not P S / PP

d) No S is P SS / PP

(- implies are and / implies are not)

All is represented by double letters; Some is represented by a single letter. Some S are not P is represented as S / PP. No S is P implies No P is S so its notation contains double letters on both sides.

RULES: (1) Conclusions are reached by connecting Notations. Two notations can be linked only through common linking terms. When the common linking term multiplies (becomes double from single), divides (becomes single from double) or remains double then conclusion is arrived between terminal terms. (Aristotle\'s rule: the middle term must be distributed at least once).

(2)If both statements linked are having " signs, resulting conclusion carries " sign (Aristotle\'s rule: two affirmatives imply an affirmative).

(3) Whenever statements having " and / signs are linked, resulting conclusion carries / sign. (Aristotle\'s rule: if one premise is negative, then the conclusion must be negative).

(4)Statement having / sign cannot be linked with another statement having / sign to derive any conclusion. (Aristotle\'s rule: Two negative premises imply no valid conclusion).

Following illustrations will make the above rules very clear illustration:

Statements ------ Notation

a) All S are P ------ a) SS " P

b) All P are Q ------ b) PP- Q

Valid Conclusions:

1. All S are Q ------>1.SS -Q

2. Some S are Q ------>2.S "Q

3. Some Q are S ------>3.Q "S

4. Some P are S ------>4.P "S

5. Some Q are P ------>5.Q- P

6. Some S are P ------>6.S- P

7. Some P are Q ------>7.P-Q

Wrong Conclusions:

1.All Q are S ------>1.QQ-S

2. All P are S ------>2.PP-S

3. All Q are P ------>3.QQ -P

4 Some S are not Q. ------> 4. S / QQ

5. Some Q are not S ------>5.Q / SS

6. Some P are not S ------>6.P / SS

Explanation: From

a) SS " P

b) PP "Q

Valid Conclusions:

SS " Q follows, because here common linking term (P) multiplies.

S- Q follows because Some is part of All(S is included in SS but not vice versa) and common linking term (P) multiplies.

Q- S follows because here common linking term (P) divides.

P- S follows from the main statement SS " P (by reverse reading).

Q " P follows from the main statement PP " Q (by reverse reading, one can isolate P from PP).

S " P follows from the main statement SS " P.

P " Q follows from the main statement PP " Q.

Wrong Conclusions:

1. QQ " S does not follow because we don\'t have any QQ in statement notation.

2. PP " S does not follow because there is no common linking term between PP and S.

3. QQ " P does not follow because we don\'t have any QQ in statement notation.

4. S / QQ is ruled out because we don\'t have any / sign in statement notation.

5. Q / SS is ruled out because we don\'t have any / sign in statement notation.

6. P / SS is ruled out because we don\'t have any / sign in statement notation.

In Transformed RAVAL\'S NOTATION, each premise and the conclusion is written in abbreviated form, and then the conclusion is reached simply by connecting abbreviated premises.

NOTATION: Statements (both premises and conclusions) are represented as follows:

Statement Notation

a) All S are P SS-P

b) Some S are P S-P

c) Some S are not P S / PP

d) No S is P SS / PP

(- implies are and / implies are not)

All is represented by double letters; Some is represented by a single letter. Some S are not P is represented as S / PP. No S is P implies No P is S so its notation contains double letters on both sides.

RULES: (1) Conclusions are reached by connecting Notations. Two notations can be linked only through common linking terms. When the common linking term multiplies (becomes double from single), divides (becomes single from double) or remains double then conclusion is arrived between terminal terms. (Aristotle\'s rule: the middle term must be distributed at least once).

(2)If both statements linked are having " signs, resulting conclusion carries " sign (Aristotle\'s rule: two affirmatives imply an affirmative).

(3) Whenever statements having " and / signs are linked, resulting conclusion carries / sign. (Aristotle\'s rule: if one premise is negative, then the conclusion must be negative).

(4)Statement having / sign cannot be linked with another statement having / sign to derive any conclusion. (Aristotle\'s rule: Two negative premises imply no valid conclusion).

Following illustrations will make the above rules very clear illustration:

Statements ------ Notation

a) All S are P ------ a) SS " P

b) All P are Q ------ b) PP- Q

Valid Conclusions:

1. All S are Q ------>1.SS -Q

2. Some S are Q ------>2.S "Q

3. Some Q are S ------>3.Q "S

4. Some P are S ------>4.P "S

5. Some Q are P ------>5.Q- P

6. Some S are P ------>6.S- P

7. Some P are Q ------>7.P-Q

Wrong Conclusions:

1.All Q are S ------>1.QQ-S

2. All P are S ------>2.PP-S

3. All Q are P ------>3.QQ -P

4 Some S are not Q. ------> 4. S / QQ

5. Some Q are not S ------>5.Q / SS

6. Some P are not S ------>6.P / SS

Explanation: From

a) SS " P

b) PP "Q

Valid Conclusions:

SS " Q follows, because here common linking term (P) multiplies.

S- Q follows because Some is part of All(S is included in SS but not vice versa) and common linking term (P) multiplies.

Q- S follows because here common linking term (P) divides.

P- S follows from the main statement SS " P (by reverse reading).

Q " P follows from the main statement PP " Q (by reverse reading, one can isolate P from PP).

S " P follows from the main statement SS " P.

P " Q follows from the main statement PP " Q.

Wrong Conclusions:

1. QQ " S does not follow because we don\'t have any QQ in statement notation.

2. PP " S does not follow because there is no common linking term between PP and S.

3. QQ " P does not follow because we don\'t have any QQ in statement notation.

4. S / QQ is ruled out because we don\'t have any / sign in statement notation.

5. Q / SS is ruled out because we don\'t have any / sign in statement notation.

6. P / SS is ruled out because we don\'t have any / sign in statement notation.

Rahul kumar said:
8 years ago

Statements:

All squares are circles.

All circles are units.

No circle is a meter.

Conclusions:

I. Some units which are not circles can be meters.

II. Some squares being meters is a possibility.

Anyone please explain how to solve this using formula table.

All squares are circles.

All circles are units.

No circle is a meter.

Conclusions:

I. Some units which are not circles can be meters.

II. Some squares being meters is a possibility.

Anyone please explain how to solve this using formula table.

Pavi said:
8 years ago

All squares are circles.

All circles are units.

No circle is a meter.

Conclusions:.

I. Some units which are not circles can be meters.

II. Some squares being meters is a possibility.

(Anyone please explain how to solve this using formula table).

All circles are units.

No circle is a meter.

Conclusions:.

I. Some units which are not circles can be meters.

II. Some squares being meters is a possibility.

(Anyone please explain how to solve this using formula table).

RICHA said:
8 years ago

What with negative statements?

Kiran said:
8 years ago

There should be common term present between two conclusions in case if conclusion contains NO.

Then the only answer will be either or option.

Eg- all men's are a duck.

NO men are duck.

If I'm wrong correct me.

Then the only answer will be either or option.

Eg- all men's are a duck.

NO men are duck.

If I'm wrong correct me.

Post your comments here:

Quick links

Quantitative Aptitude

Verbal (English)

Reasoning

Programming

Interview

Placement Papers