# Logical Reasoning - Logical Deduction - Discussion

*Directions to Solve*

In each of the following questions, three statements are given followed by four conclusions numbered I, II, III and TV. You have to take the given statements to be true even if they seem to be at variance with commonly known facts and then decide which of the given conclusions logically follows from the given statements disregarding commonly known facts.

**Statements: ** All pencils are birds. All birds are skies. All skies are hills.

**Conclusions:**

- All pencils are hills.
- All hills are birds
- All skies are pencils.
- All birds are hills.

All pencils are birds. All birds are skies.

Since both the premises are universal and affirmative, the conclusion must be universal affirmative (A-type) and should not contain the middle term. So, it follows that 'All pencils are skies'.

All birds are skies. All skies are hills.

As discussed above, it follows that 'All birds are hills'. Thus, IV follows.

All pencils are skies. All skies are hills.

Clearly, it follows that 'All pencils are hills'. Thus, I follows.

Hence, I and IV follow.

The conclusion will be All pencils are skies. But All skies are pencils (conclusion III) IS THE CONVERSE of the conclusion. If conclusion III is not included it makes the explanation delusional.

For example, it tells us that all pencils are birds, but it does not tell us that all birds are pencils. It tells us all birds are skies, but it does not tell us that all skies are birds. And. It tells us that all skies are hills, but it does not tell us that all the hills are skies.

Therefore you can say that any logic flowing the one direction is a correct answer while any logic flowing the other direction is not.