Civil Engineering - Water Supply Engineering - Discussion


Carbonates in water produce

[A]. temporary hardness
[B]. permanent hardness
[C]. acidity
[D]. alkanity.

Answer: Option A


No answer description available for this question.

Sainajamsheer said: (Aug 6, 2014)  
Carbonates and bicarbonates causes temporary hardness.

Nitrates chlorides and sulphates causes permanent hardness.

Heera said: (Sep 23, 2019)  
Temporary hardness : due to bicarbonates of calcium and it is removed by boiling, freezing and by addition of lime.

Permanent hardness : due to chlorides and sulphates of calcium and magnesium. And it is removed by zeolite process.

Mjm Gcek said: (Aug 20, 2021)  
I think It's alkalinity.

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