Given that, t = thickness of the plates, b = width of the plates, d = diameter of the rivets, n = number of rivets in a line, σ_{t} = permissible tensile stress. The tearing strength of the joint is given by

Consider the following statements pertaining to a pile group and a single pile at failure : 1. In loose and medium dense sands, the failure load per pile in a group will generally be greater than the failure load for a single pile. 2. In cohesive soils, the failure load per pile in a group will be greater than failure load for a single pile. 3. For piles driven in dense sands, the failure load per pile in a group is greater than the failure load for a single pile. 4. When the pile spacing is greater than 10 times the pile diameter, the failure loads per pile in a group and forly same in both sands and clays. Of these statements :

If the settlement of a single pile in sand is denoted by S and that of a group of N identical piles (each pile carrying the same load) by S_{g}, then the ratio S_{g}/S will