If bending moment is M, shear force is F effecive depth is d, lever arm is l_{a} area of reinforcement is A_{s} and sum of the circumferences of main reinforcement is 0, the bond stress based on working stress method, is

The length of lap in tension reinforcement should not be less than the bar diameter x (actual tension / four times the permissible average bond stress) if it is more than

If K is a constant depending upon the ratio of the width of the slab to its effective span l, x is the distance of the concentrated load from the nearer support, bw is the width of the area of contact of the concentrated load measured parallel to the supported edge, the effective width of the slab be is

If W is total load per unit area on a panel, D is the diameter of the column head, L is the span in two directions, then the sum of the maximum positive bending moment and average of the negative bending moment for the design of the span of a square flat slab, should not be less than