General Knowledge - Basic General Knowledge - Discussion

Discussion Forum : Basic General Knowledge - Section 2 (Q.No. 49)
Innocent III, who became pope in 1198 led
the first crusade
the second crusade
the third crusade
the fourth crusade
Answer: Option
No answer description is available. Let's discuss.
3 comments Page 1 of 1.

Dinesh sutar said:   1 decade ago
Pope Innocent III succeeded to the papacy in 1198, and the preaching of a new crusade became the goal of his pontificate. His call was largely ignored by the European monarchs: the Germans were struggling against Papal power, and England and France were still engaged in warfare against each other. However, due to the preaching of Fulk of Neuilly, a crusading army was finally organized at a tournament held at Ecry by Count Thibaut of Champagne in 1199. Thibaut was elected leader, but he died in 1201 and was replaced by an Italian count, Boniface of Montferrat.[5]

TURK MANAV said:   1 decade ago
What is a crusade ?

Srinidhi Arekal said:   1 decade ago
Crusades were religiously motivated campaigns conducted between the 11th and 16th centuries predominantly but not exclusively against Muslims in the Near East but also against pagans, heretics, and peoples under the ban of excommunication for a mixture of religious, economic, and political reasons. Their emblem was the cross"the term "crusade" is derived from the French term for taking up the cross. Many were from France and called themselves "Franks", which became the common term used by Muslims. Europeans had historically called the occupants of the Holy Land Saracens, and used this in a negative sense throughout the Crusades and often in European history books into the 20th century.

The first crusade was called by Pope Urban II in 1095 with the stated goal of restoring Christian access to the holy places in and near Jerusalem. This led to an intermittent 200-year struggle to reclaim the Holy Land that ended in failure. The background was the Arab"Byzantine Wars, the Seljuq-Byzantine Wars and the defeat of the Byzantine army by Seljuk Turks at Manzikert in 1071. The Norman conqueror Robert Guiscard's conquest of Byzantine territories added to the problems of the Byzantine Empire. In an attempt to curtail both dangers, its Emperor Alexios I sought to align Christian nations against a common enemy, requested western aid, and Urban II in turn enlisted western leaders in the cause.

Several hundred thousand soldiers became Crusaders by taking vows; the papacy granted them plenary indulgence. The crusaders were Christians from all over Western Europe under feudal rather than unified command. There were seven major and numerous minor Crusades against Muslim territories. Rivalries among both Christian and Muslim powers also led to alliances between religious factions against their opponents, such as the Christian alliance with the Islamic Sultanate of Rum during the Fifth Crusade. When the last Christian stronghold in the Holy Land fell at Acre in 1291 there was no coherent response.

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