# C Programming - Structures, Unions, Enums - Discussion

```
#include<stdio.h>
int main()
{
struct value
{
int bit1:1;
int bit3:4;
int bit4:4;
}bit={1, 2, 13};
printf("%d, %d, %d\n", bit.bit1, bit.bit3, bit.bit4);
return 0;
}
```

Note the below statement inside the struct:

*int bit1:1;* --> 'int' indicates that it is a SIGNED integer.

For signed integers the leftmost bit will be taken for +/- sign.

**If you store 1 in 1-bit field:**

The left most bit is 1, so the system will treat the value as negative number.

The 2's complement method is used by the system to handle the negative values.

Therefore, the data stored is 1. The 2's complement of 1 is also 1 (negative).

Therefore **-1** is printed.

**If you store 2 in 4-bits field:**

Binary 2: 0010 (left most bit is 0, so system will treat it as positive value)

0010 is 2

Therefore **2** is printed.

**If you store 13 in 4-bits field:**

Binary 13: 1101 (left most bit is 1, so system will treat it as negative value)

Find 2's complement of 1101:

1's complement of 1101 : 0010

2's complement of 1101 : 0011 (Add 1 to the result of 1's complement)

0011 is 3 (but negative value)

Therefore **-3** is printed.

here INT BIT1:1 means an SIGNED INTEGER .

int can have both positive , negative and zero valu.

Signed integer store using 2`s complement method and un signed can by 1's complement method.

Now we need signed integer because of modern arithmetic needs ie Short integer(16 bits) long (32 bits) double (64) , using unsigned here will result in overflow, trancation.

Representation::

In signed the the legt most bit is used to check weather it an postive or negative number.

what is bit1:1??

bit 1:1 means one bit feild, since computer stores data in bit pattern , only one bit space is available to satisfy what ever may be the Contain of bit.

ex:

int bit7 : 2 ;

int bit5 :7

{

bit{2,4,5,1}

}

pf("%d", bit.bit7 ,bit.bit5 );

here only two byte will be available to preprocessor for allocating 0011 (2 in 2`s complement form) , bit7 is just a name .

int bit5 :7

it will provide 7 bits space to proceessor to allocate (0101)4 in 2`s complement.

Now we have to check weather it an positive or negative ::

In c (0 stnds for +) and (1 stnds for -)

in signed int we have to check Lhs of 2`s complemented integer.

In case of 4(0101) lhs is '0' ie it a +ve number

If lhs comes out '1' it an negative number.

So in a first bit it will take left as well as right most bit is 1 because here only 1 bit memory available.

Bit2: 4 means it will be stored 4 bit like (eg: 2 binary stored in 4 bit only).

So 4 = 0100, here left most bit is 0 that's why we didn't took 2's complement here and print value 2 as is it.

Bit3: 4 means it will be also stored 4 bit like (eg: 13 binary stored in 4 bit only).

So 13 = 1101, here left most bit is 1 that's why we took 2's complement here and print changeable value.

bit1 have 1 bit hence we can use 0001. The zero is un available data hence the system takes started left to right. in left it is -sign.

Hence we get -1.. if we use bit1:2 bit we can get +1 output. coz 00(01)used.... Bit 3 : 4 i.e : 0000 the value is 13.

Hence 1101 almost the all value filled so system takes same like "1". It is is 5. we can use 01101 almost the right is filled hence we get "+13"

Binary 13: 1101 (left most bit is 1, so system will treat it as negative value)

Find 2's complement of 1101:

1's complement of 1101 : 0010

2's complement of 1101 : 0011 (Add 1 to the result of 1's complement)

0011 is 3 (but negative value)

Therefore -3 is printed.

WHY -3? The leftmost digit is 0 so it should be 3 right?

Bit2:1 means that only 1 bit of memory is allocated for the variable bit2.

How we assign value 2 (binary 10) to 1 bit value. So output is coming 0.

In bit2: 4, 4 bit of memory is allocated.

So binary 0010 is stored. Left most bit is 0, so system will treat it as positive value. So output is 2.

Example:

a = 2 = 0010

In bit field "int a:2" means you just use 2 bit value of 0010

therefore,

int a:2 = 10.

Another example:

In bit field "int a:3" means you just use 3 bit value of 0010

therefore,

int a:2 =010.

int bit2:1 and value assigned the same as 2 then output is coming 0 why this zero output is coming I am not getting can anyone explain me?

Because 1 is expressed as 0001 in binary. Please explain this.

As you are calculating the two's complement of 13 that it's a negative number and hence you will have to append a negative sign in the answer.