SQL Server - Common Interview Questions and Answers

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  1. Which TCP/IP port does SQL Server run on? How can it be changed?
    SQL Server runs on port 1433. It can be changed from the Network Utility TCP/IP properties.
  2. What are the difference between clustered and a non-clustered index?
    1. A clustered index is a special type of index that reorders the way records in the table are physically stored. Therefore table can have only one clustered index. The leaf nodes of a clustered index contain the data pages.
    2. A non clustered index is a special type of index in which the logical order of the index does not match the physical stored order of the rows on disk. The leaf node of a non clustered index does not consist of the data pages. Instead, the leaf nodes contain index rows.
  3. What are the different index configurations a table can have?
    A table can have one of the following index configurations:
    1. No indexes
    2. A clustered index
    3. A clustered index and many nonclustered indexes
    4. A nonclustered index
    5. Many nonclustered indexes
  4. What are different types of Collation Sensitivity?
    1. Case sensitivity - A and a, B and b, etc.
    2. Accent sensitivity
    3. Kana Sensitivity - When Japanese kana characters Hiragana and Katakana are treated differently, it is called Kana sensitive.
    4. Width sensitivity - A single-byte character (half-width) and the same character represented as a double-byte character (full-width) are treated differently than it is width sensitive.
  5. What is OLTP (Online Transaction Processing)?
    In OLTP - online transaction processing systems relational database design use the discipline of data modeling and generally follow the Codd rules of data normalization in order to ensure absolute data integrity. Using these rules complex information is broken down into its most simple structures (a table) where all of the individual atomic level elements relate to each other and satisfy the normalization rules.
  6. What's the difference between a primary key and a unique key?
    Both primary key and unique key enforces uniqueness of the column on which they are defined. But by default primary key creates a clustered index on the column, where are unique creates a nonclustered index by default. Another major difference is that, primary key doesn't allow NULLs, but unique key allows one NULL only.