.NET Framework - .NET Interview Questions and Answers

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  1. What is .NET Framework?
    .NET Framework is a complete environment that allows developers to develop, run, and deploy the following applications:

    • Console applications
    • Windows Forms applications
    • Windows Presentation Foundation (WPF) applications
    • Web applications (ASP.NET applications)
    • Web services
    • Windows services
    • Service-oriented applications using Windows Communication Foundation (WCF)
    • Workflow-enabled applications using Windows Workflow Foundation (WF)

    .NET Framework also enables a developer to create sharable components to be used in distributed computing architecture. NET Framework supports the object-oriented programming model for multiple languages, such as Visual Basic, Visual C#, and Visual C++. .NET Framework supports multiple programming languages in a manner that allows language interoperability. This implies that each language can use the code written in some other language.
  2. What are the main components of .NET Framework?
    .NET Framework provides enormous advantages to software developers in comparison to the advantages provided by other platforms. Microsoft has united various modern as well as existing technologies of software development in .NET Framework. These technologies are used by developers to develop highly efficient applications for modern as well as future business needs. The following are the key components of .NET Framework:

    • .NET Framework Class Library
    • Common Language Runtime
    • Dynamic Language Runtimes (DLR)
    • Application Domains
    • Runtime Host
    • Common Type System
    • Metadata and Self-Describing Components
    • Cross-Language Interoperability
    • .NET Framework Security
    • Profiling
    • Side-by-Side Execution
  3. List the new features added in .NET Framework 4.0.
    The following are the new features of .NET Framework 4.0:

    • Improved Application Compatibility and Deployment Support
    • Dynamic Language Runtime
    • Managed Extensibility Framework
    • Parallel Programming framework
    • Improved Security Model
    • Networking Improvements
    • Improved Core ASP.NET Services
    • Improvements in WPF 4
    • Improved Entity Framework (EF)
    • Integration between WCF and WF
  4. What is an IL?
    Intermediate Language is also known as MSIL (Microsoft Intermediate Language) or CIL (Common Intermediate Language). All .NET source code is compiled to IL. IL is then converted to machine code at the point where the software is installed, or at run-time by a Just-In-Time (JIT) compiler.
  5. What is Manifest?
    Assembly metadata is stored in Manifest. Manifest contains all the metadata needed to do the following things
    • Version of assembly.
    • Security identity.
    • Scope of the assembly.
    • Resolve references to resources and classes.

    The assembly manifest can be stored in a PE file either (an .exe or) .dll with Microsoft
    intermediate language (MSIL code with Microsoft intermediate language (MSIL) code or in a
    stand-alone PE file, that contains only assembly manifest information.
  6. What are code contracts?
    Code contracts help you to express the code assumptions and statements stating the behavior of your code in a language-neutral way. The contracts are included in the form of pre-conditions, post-conditions and object-invariants. The contracts help you to improve-testing by enabling run-time checking, static contract verification, and documentation generation.

    The System.Diagnostics.Contracts namespace contains static classes that are used to express contracts in your code.

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