Data can be corrupted during transmission. For reliable communication errors must be deducted and Corrected. Error Detection uses the concept of redundancy, which means adding extra bits for detecting errors at the destination. The common Error Detection methods are
a. Vertical Redundancy Check (VRC)
b. Longitudinal Redundancy Check (VRC)
c. Cyclic Redundancy Check (VRC)
What is Redundancy?
The concept of including extra information in the transmission solely for the purpose of comparison. This technique is called redundancy.
What is VRC?
It is the most common and least expensive mechanism for Error Detection. In VRC, a parity bit is added to every data unit so that the total number of 1s becomes even for even parity. It can detect all single-bit errors. It can detect burst errors only if the total number of errors in each data unit is odd.
What is LRC?
In LRC, a block of bits is divided into rows and a redundant row of bits is added to the whole block. It can detect burst errors. If two bits in one data unit are damaged and bits in exactly the same positions in another data unit are also damaged, the LRC checker will not detect an error. In LRC a redundant data unit follows n data units.
What is CRC?
CRC, is the most powerful of the redundancy checking techniques, is based on binary division.
What is Checksum?
Checksum is used by the higher layer protocols (TCP/IP) for error detection