103. What is denormalization and why would someone consider doing so?
Denormalization is the process of taking normalized relations and changing them so that they are not longer normalized. This process may lead to anomalies and create data redundancy as negative consequences. However, the revised relations should improve database performance.
104. Compare a hierarchical and network database model?
The hierarchical model is a top-down structure where each parent may have many children but each child can have only one parent. This model supports one-to-one and one-to-many relationships. The network model can be much more flexible than the hierarchical model since each parent can have multiple children but each child can also have multiple parents. This model supports one-to-one, one-to-many, and many-to-many relationships.
105. Describe the differences between vertical and horizontal portioning.
Horizontal portioning is where the rows in a relation are separated by some criteria and placed into a new relation or file with the same layout as the original relation (in this case only the records in each file differ). Vertical portioning is where the columns in a relation are separated by some criteria and placed into a new relation or file with a different layout as the original relation.
106. Explain the difference between a dynamic and materialized view.
A dynamic view may be created every time that a specific view is requested by a user. A materialized view is created and or updated infrequently and it must be synchronized with its associated base table(s).
107. Discuss some of the techniques that can be used to tune operational performance.
Choosing primary and secondary keys can increase the speed of row selection, joining, and row ordering. Selecting the appropriate file organization for base tables and indexes can also improve performance. Clustering related rows together and maintaining statistics about tables and indexes can lead to increased efficiency.
108. Briefly describe the three types of SQL commands.
Data definition language commands are used to create, alter, and drop tables. Data manipulation commands are used to insert, modify, update, and query data in the database. Data control language commands help the DBA to control the database.