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Oracle Interview Questions And Answers Set - 6

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Oracle Interview
Questions And Answers Set - 6



What is an User Exits ?
A user exit is a subroutine which are written in programming languages using pro*C pro *Cobol , etc., that link into the SQL * forms executable.

What is a Trigger ?
A piece of logic that is executed at or triggered by a SQL *forms event.

What is a Package Procedure ?
A Package procedure is built in PL/SQL procedure.

What is the maximum size of a form ?
255 character width and 255 characters Length.

What is the difference between system.current_field and system.cursor_field ?
1. System.current_field gives name of the field.
2. System.cursor_field gives name of the field with block name.

List the system variables related in Block and Field?
1. System.block_status
2. System.current_block
3. System.current_field
4. System.current_value
5. System.cursor_block
6. System.cursor_field
7. System.field_status.

What are the different types of Package Procedure ?
1. Restricted package procedure.
2. Unrestricted package procedure.

What are the types of TRIGGERS ?
1. Navigational Triggers.
2. Transaction Triggers.

Identify package function from the following ?
1. Error-Code
2. Break
3. Call
4. Error-text
5. Form-failure
6. Form-fatal
7. Execute-query
8. Anchor View
9. Message_code?

1. Error_Code
2. Error_Text
3. Form_Failure
4. Form_Fatal
5. Message_Code

Can you attach an lov to a field at run-time? if yes, give the build-in name.?
Yes. Set_item_proprety

Is it possible to attach same library to more than one form?
Yes
 

Can you attach an lov to a field at design time?
Yes

List the windows event triggers available in Forms 4.0?
When-window-activated,
when-window-closed,
when-window-deactivated,
when-window-resized

What are the triggers associated with the image item?
When-Image-activated(Fires when the operator double clicks on an image Items)
When-image-pressed(fires when the operator selects or deselects the image item)

What is a visual attribute?
Visual Attributes are the font, color and pattern characteristics of objects that operators see and intract with in our application.

How many maximum number of radio buttons can you assign to a radio group?
Unlimited no of radio buttons can be assigned to a radio group

What is an Lov?
A list of values is a single or multi column selection list displayed in a pop-up window

What is a record Group?
A record group is an internal oracle forms data structure that has a similar column/row frame work to a database table

Give built-in routine related to a record groups?
Create_group (Function)
Create_group_from_query(Function)
Delete_group(Procedure)
Add_group_column(Function)
Add_group_row(Procedure)
Delete_group_row(Procedure)
Populate_group(Function)
Populate_group_with_query(Function)
Set_group_Char_cell(procedure)

List the built-in routines for the controlling canvas views during run-time?
Find_canvas
Get-Canvas_property
Get_view_property
Hide_View
Replace_content_view
Scroll_view
Set_canvas_property
Set_view_property
Show_view
Alert

System.effective_date system variable is read only True/False?
False

What are the built_in used to trapping errors in forms 4?
Error_type return character
Error_code return number
Error_text return char
Dbms_error_code return no.
Dbms_error_text return char

What is Oracle Financials? (for DBA)
Oracle Financials products provide organizations with solutions to a wide range of long- and short-term accounting system issues. Regardless of the size of the business, Oracle Financials can meet accounting management demands with:
Oracle Assets: Ensures that an organization's property and equipment investment is accurate and that the correct asset tax accounting strategies are chosen.
Oracle General Ledger: Offers a complete solution to journal entry, budgeting, allocations, consolidation, and financial reporting needs.
Oracle Inventory: Helps an organization make better inventory decisions by minimizing stock and maximizing cash flow.
Oracle Order Entry: Provides organizations with a sophisticated order entry system for managing customer commitments.
Oracle Payables: Lets an organization process more invoices with fewer staff members and tighter controls. Helps save money through maximum discounts, bank float, and prevention of duplicate payment.
Oracle Personnel: Improves the management of employee- related issues by retaining and making available every form of personnel data.
Oracle Purchasing: Improves buying power, helps negotiate bigger discounts, eliminates paper flow, increases financial controls, and increases productivity.
Oracle Receivables:. Improves cash flow by letting an organization process more payments faster, without off-line research. Helps correctly account for cash, reduce outstanding receivables, and improve collection effectiveness.
Oracle Revenue Accounting Gives an organization timely and accurate revenue and flexible commissions reporting.
Oracle Sales Analysis: Allows for better forecasting, planning. and reporting of sales information.

What are the design facilities available in forms 4.0?
Default Block facility.
Layout Editor.
Menu Editor.
Object Lists.
Property Sheets.
PL/SQL Editor.
Tables Columns Browser.
Built-ins Browser.

What is the most important module in Oracle Financials? (for DBA)
The General Ledger (GL) module is the basis for all other Oracle Financial modules. All other modules provide information to it. If you implement Oracle Financials, you should switch your current GL system first.GL is relatively easy to implement. You should go live with it first to give your implementation team a chance to be familiar with Oracle Financials.

What are the types of canvas-views?
Content View, Stacked View.

What is the MultiOrg and what is it used for? (for DBA)
MultiOrg or Multiple Organizations Architecture allows multiple operating units and their relationships to be defined within a single installation of Oracle Applications. This keeps each operating unit's transaction data separate and secure.
Use the following query to determine if MuliOrg is intalled:
select multi_org_flag from fnd_product_groups;

What is the difference between Fields and FlexFields? (for DBA)
A field is a position on a form that one uses to enter, view, update, or delete information. A field prompt describes each field by telling what kind of information appears in the field, or alternatively, what kind of information should be entered in the field.
A flexfield is an Oracle Applications field made up of segments. Each segment has an assigned name and a set of valid values. Oracle Applications uses flexfields to capture information about your organization. There are two types of flexfields: key flexfields and descriptive flexfields.

Explain types of Block in forms4.0?
Base table Blocks.
Control Blocks.
1. A base table block is one that is associated with a specific database table or view.
2. A control block is a block that is not associated with a database table. ITEMS

What is an Alert?
An alert is a modal window that displays a message notifies the operator of some application condition

What are the built-in routines is available in forms 4.0 to create and manipulate a parameter list?
Add_parameter
Create_Parameter_list
Delete_parameter
Destroy_parameter_list
Get_parameter_attr
Get_parameter_list
set_parameter_attr

What is a record Group?
A record group is an internal oracle forms data structure that has a similar column/row frame work to a database table

What is a Navigable item?
A navigable item is one that operators can navigate to with the keyboard during default navigation, or that Oracle forms can navigate to by executing a navigational built-in procedure.

What is a library in Forms 4.0?
A library is a collection of Pl/SQL program units, including user named procedures, functions & packages

How image_items can be populate to field in forms 4.0?
A fetch from a long raw database column PL/Sql assignment to executing the read_image_file built_in procedure to get an image from the file system.

What is the content view and stacked view?
A content view is the "Base" view that occupies the entire content pane of the window in which it is displayed. A stacked view differs from a content canvas view in that it is not the base view for the window to which it is assigned

What is a Check Box?
A Check Box is a two state control that indicates whether a certain condition or value is on or off, true or false. The display state of a check box is always either "checked" or "unchecked".

What is a canvas-view?
A canvas-view is the background object on which you layout the interface items (text-items, check boxes, radio groups, and so on.) and boilerplate objects that operators see and interact with as they run your form. At run-time, operators can see only those items that have been assigned to a specific canvas. Each canvas, in term, must be displayed in a specific window.

Explain the following file extension related to library?
.pll,.lib,.pld
The library pll files is a portable design file comparable to an fmb form file
The library lib file is a plat form specific, generated library file comparable to a fmx form file
The pld file is Txt format file and can be used for source controlling your library files Parameter

Explain the usage of WHERE CURRENT OF clause in cursors ?
WHERE CURRENT OF clause in an UPDATE,DELETE statement refers to the latest row fetched from a cursor. Database Triggers

Name the tables where characteristics of Package, procedure and functions are stored ?
User_objects, User_Source and User_error.

Explain the two type of Cursors ?
There are two types of cursors, Implicit Cursor and Explicit Cursor. PL/SQL uses Implicit Cursors for queries. User defined cursors are called Explicit Cursors. They can be declared and used.

What are two parts of package ?
The two parts of package are PACKAGE SPECIFICATION & PACKAGE BODY. Package Specification contains declarations that are global to the packages and local to the schema. Package Body contains actual procedures and local declaration of the procedures and cursor declarations.

What are two virtual tables available during database trigger execution ?
The table columns are referred as OLD.column_name and NEW.column_name.
For triggers related to INSERT only NEW.column_name values only available.
For triggers related to UPDATE only OLD.column_name NEW.column_name values only available.
For triggers related to DELETE only OLD.column_name values only available.

What is Fine Grained Auditing? (for DBA)
Fine Grained Auditing (DBMS_FGA) allows auditing records to be generated when certain rows are selected from a table. A list of defined policies can be obtained from DBA_AUDIT_POLICIES. Audit records are stored in DBA_FGA_AUDIT_TRAIL. Look at this example:
o Add policy on table with autiting condition...
execute dbms_fga.add_policy('HR', 'EMP', 'policy1', 'deptno > 10');
o Must ANALYZE, this feature works with CBO (Cost Based Optimizer)
analyze table EMP compute statistics;
select * from EMP where c1 = 11; -- Will trigger auditing
select * from EMP where c1 = 09; -- No auditing
o Now we can see the statments that triggered the auditing condition...
select sqltext from sys.fga_log$;
delete from sys.fga_log$;
 

What is a package ? What are the advantages of packages ? What is Pragma EXECPTION_INIT ? Explain the usage ?
The PRAGMA EXECPTION_INIT tells the complier to associate an exception with an oracle error. To get an error message of a specific oracle error. e.g. PRAGMA EXCEPTION_INIT (exception name, oracle error number)

What is a Virtual Private Database? (for DBA)
Oracle 8i introduced the notion of a Virtual Private Database (VPD). A VPD offers Fine-Grained Access Control (FGAC) for secure separation of data. This ensures that users only have access to data that pertains to them. Using this option, one could even store multiple companies' data within the same schema, without them knowing about it. VPD configuration is done via the DBMS_RLS (Row Level Security) package. Select from SYS.V$VPD_POLICY to see existing VPD configuration.

What is Raise_application_error ?
Raise_application_error is a procedure of package DBMS_STANDARD which allows to issue an user_defined error messages from stored sub-program or database trigger.

What is Oracle Label Security? (for DBA)
Oracle Label Security (formerly called Trusted Oracle MLS RDBMS) uses the VPD (Virtual Private Database) feature of Oracle8i to implement row level security. Access to rows are restricted according to a user's security sensitivity tag or label. Oracle Label Security is configured, controlled and managed from the Policy Manager, an Enterprise Manager-based GUI utility.

Give the structure of the procedure ?
PROCEDURE name (parameter list.....)
is
local variable declarations
BEGIN
Executable statements.
Exception.
exception handlers
end;

What is OEM (Oracle Enterprise Manager)? (for DBA)
OEM is a set of systems management tools provided by Oracle Corporation for managing the Oracle environment. It provides tools to monitor the Oracle environment and automate tasks (both one-time and repetitive in nature) to take database administration a step closer to "Lights Out" management.

Question What is PL/SQL ?
PL/SQL is a procedural language that has both interactive SQL and procedural programming language constructs such as iteration, conditional branching.

What are the components of OEM? (for DBA)
Oracle Enterprise Manager (OEM) has the following components:
. Management Server (OMS): Middle tier server that handles communication with the intelligent agents. The OEM Console connects to the management server to monitor and configure the Oracle enterprise.
. Console: This is a graphical interface from where one can schedule jobs, events, and monitor the database. The console can be opened from a Windows workstation, Unix XTerm (oemapp command) or Web browser session (oem_webstage).
. Intelligent Agent (OIA): The OIA runs on the target database and takes care of the execution of jobs and events scheduled through the Console.

What happens if a procedure that updates a column of table X is called in a database trigger of the same table ?
Mutation of table occurs.

Is it possible to use Transaction control Statements such a ROLLBACK or COMMIT in Database Trigger ? Why ?
It is not possible. As triggers are defined for each table, if you use COMMIT of ROLLBACK in a trigger, it affects logical transaction processing.

How many types of database triggers can be specified on a table ? What are they ?
Insert Update Delete
Before Row o.k. o.k. o.k.
After Row o.k. o.k. o.k.
Before Statement o.k. o.k. o.k.
After Statement o.k. o.k. o.k.
If FOR EACH ROW clause is specified, then the trigger for each Row affected by the statement.
If WHEN clause is specified, the trigger fires according to the returned Boolean value.

What are the modes of parameters that can be passed to a procedure ?
IN,OUT,IN-OUT parameters.
 

Where the Pre_defined_exceptions are stored ?
In the standard package.
Procedures, Functions & Packages ;

Write the order of precedence for validation of a column in a table ?
I. done using Database triggers.
ii. done using Integarity Constraints.?

I & ii.

Give the structure of the function ?
FUNCTION name (argument list .....) Return datatype is
local variable declarations
Begin
executable statements
Exception
execution handlers
End;

Explain how procedures and functions are called in a PL/SQL block ?
Function is called as part of an expression.
sal := calculate_sal ('a822');
procedure is called as a PL/SQL statement
calculate_bonus ('A822');
 

What are advantages fo Stored Procedures?
Extensibility,Modularity, Reusability, Maintainability and one time compilation.

What is an Exception ? What are types of Exception ?
Exception is the error handling part of PL/SQL block. The types are Predefined and user defined. Some of Predefined exceptions are.
CURSOR_ALREADY_OPEN
DUP_VAL_ON_INDEX
NO_DATA_FOUND
TOO_MANY_ROWS
INVALID_CURSOR
INVALID_NUMBER
LOGON_DENIED
NOT_LOGGED_ON
PROGRAM-ERROR
STORAGE_ERROR
TIMEOUT_ON_RESOURCE
VALUE_ERROR
ZERO_DIVIDE
OTHERS.

What are the PL/SQL Statements used in cursor processing ?
DECLARE CURSOR name, OPEN cursor name, FETCH cursor name INTO or Record types, CLOSE cursor name.

What are the components of a PL/SQL Block ?
Declarative part, Executable part and Exception part.
Datatypes PL/SQL

What is a database trigger ? Name some usages of database trigger ?
Database trigger is stored PL/SQL program unit associated with a specific database table. Usages are Audit data modifications, Log events transparently, Enforce complex business rules Derive column values automatically, Implement complex security authorizations. Maintain replicate tables.

What is a cursor ? Why Cursor is required ?
Cursor is a named private SQL area from where information can be accessed. Cursors are required to process rows individually for queries returning multiple rows.

What is a cursor for loop ?
Cursor for loop implicitly declares %ROWTYPE as loop index, opens a cursor, fetches rows of values from active set into fields in the record and closes when all the records have been processed.
e.g.. FOR emp_rec IN C1 LOOP
salary_total := salary_total +emp_rec sal;
END LOOP;
 

What will happen after commit statement ?
Cursor C1 is
Select empno,
ename from emp;
Begin
open C1; loop
Fetch C1 into
eno.ename;
Exit When
C1 %notfound;-----
commit;
end loop;
end;
The cursor having query as SELECT .... FOR UPDATE gets closed after COMMIT/ROLLBACK.
The cursor having query as SELECT.... does not get closed even after COMMIT/ROLLBACK.

How packaged procedures and functions are called from the following?
a. Stored procedure or anonymous block
b. an application program such a PRC *C, PRO* COBOL
c. SQL *PLUS??

a. PACKAGE NAME.PROCEDURE NAME (parameters);
variable := PACKAGE NAME.FUNCTION NAME (arguments);
EXEC SQL EXECUTE
b.BEGIN
PACKAGE NAME.PROCEDURE NAME (parameters)
variable := PACKAGE NAME.FUNCTION NAME (arguments);
END;
END EXEC;
c. EXECUTE PACKAGE NAME.PROCEDURE if the procedures does not have any out/in-out parameters. A function can not be called.

What is a stored procedure ?
A stored procedure is a sequence of statements that perform specific function.

What are the components of a PL/SQL block ?
A set of related declarations and procedural statements is called block.

What is difference between a PROCEDURE & FUNCTION ?
A FUNCTION is always returns a value using the return statement.
A PROCEDURE may return one or more values through parameters or may not return at all.

What is difference between a Cursor declared in a procedure and Cursor declared in a package specification ?
A cursor declared in a package specification is global and can be accessed by other procedures or procedures in a package.
A cursor declared in a procedure is local to the procedure that can not be accessed by other procedures.

What are the cursor attributes used in PL/SQL ?
%ISOPEN - to check whether cursor is open or not
% ROWCOUNT - number of rows fetched/updated/deleted.
% FOUND - to check whether cursor has fetched any row. True if rows are fetched.
% NOT FOUND - to check whether cursor has fetched any row. True if no rows are featched.
These attributes are proceeded with SQL for Implicit Cursors and with Cursor name for Explicit Cursors.

What are % TYPE and % ROWTYPE ? What are the advantages of using these over datatypes?
% TYPE provides the data type of a variable or a database column to that variable.
% ROWTYPE provides the record type that represents a entire row of a table or view or columns selected in the cursor.
The advantages are :
I. Need not know about variable's data type
ii. If the database definition of a column in a table changes, the data type of a variable changes accordingly.

What is difference between % ROWTYPE and TYPE RECORD ?
% ROWTYPE is to be used whenever query returns a entire row of a table or view.
TYPE rec RECORD is to be used whenever query returns columns of different table or views and variables.
E.g. TYPE r_emp is RECORD (eno emp.empno% type,ename emp ename %type );
e_rec emp% ROWTYPE
cursor c1 is select empno,deptno from emp;
e_rec c1 %ROWTYPE.

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