# Logical Reasoning - Logical Deduction - Discussion

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"Everything should be made as simple as possible, but not simpler."
- Albert Einstein

In each question below are given two statements followed by two conclusions numbered I and II. You have to take the given two statements to be true even if they seem to be at variance from commonly known facts. Read the conclusion and then decide which of the given conclusions logically follows from the two given statements, disregarding commonly known facts.

• (A) If only conclusion I follows
• (B) If only conclusion II follows
• (C) If either I or II follows
• (D) If neither I nor II follows and
• (E) If both I and II follow.

2.

Statements: All bags are cakes. All lamps are cakes.

Conclusions:

1. Some lamps are bags.
2. No lamp is bag.

 [A]. Only conclusion I follows [B]. Only conclusion II follows [C]. Either I or II follows [D]. Neither I nor II follows [E]. Both I and II follow

Explanation:

Since the middle term 'cakes' is not distributed even once in the premises, no definite conclusion follows. However, I and II involve only the extreme terms and form a complementary pair. So, either I or II follows.

 Suneel said: (Tue, Jan 18, 2011 03:22:36 AM) Draw the verner diagram for the above statement.

 Mrudula said: (Fri, Jan 28, 2011 12:10:19 AM) How can we tell that they involve only in the extreme terms and form a complementary pair.

 Jaya said: (Sun, Apr 24, 2011 07:48:32 AM) Both the terms are universal affirmative then conclusion also in universal affirmative?

 Balaji said: (Tue, May 17, 2011 06:38:00 AM) Fellas why using technicals words just can body put it in simple way to understand this problem.

 Promel said: (Thu, May 26, 2011 01:43:39 AM) When no conclusion can be drawn then why can't be the answer be option (D) If neither I nor II follows ?

 Aishwarya said: (Thu, Jun 16, 2011 09:01:46 AM) It is possible that lamps and bags from different groups within the group of cakes or it is possible that some bags and lamps are common?

 Rahul said: (Thu, Jul 7, 2011 07:56:02 AM) Answer is D i think..as common term is not distributed in statement..

 Sharath said: (Tue, Jul 19, 2011 02:38:04 PM) Ya. No conclusion follows. Since the middle term is not at all distributed.

 Deepika said: (Mon, Aug 1, 2011 11:30:41 AM) Let us assume that bag=X, cake=Y & lamp=Z, then from d question it is clearly indicated that X=Y & Z=Y, that means some X=Z which is written in conclusion 1. But it's contrast statement "NO LAMP IS BAG" is written conclusion 2. so i think the option 1 is the right ans. can any one tell whether i'm right or wrong ?

 Chinu said: (Thu, Sep 15, 2011 11:45:03 AM) Whats exactly a complementary pair? Please answer me.

 Kapil said: (Mon, Nov 7, 2011 03:23:08 PM) This question has multiple choices if we go by venn diagram approach. So we must go by selecting the middle term approach which give us unique answer with no conclusion can be drawn as mid term is not distributed.

 Zafrul Islam said: (Mon, Aug 27, 2012 07:59:10 PM) Let us assume that bag=X, cake=Y & lamp=Z, then from d question it is clearly indicated that X=Y & Z=Y, that means either some X=Z or it may be no terms of z match with the x terms.So c is correct option.

 Naveed said: (Tue, Oct 2, 2012 11:53:14 PM) According to the rule book to the Deduction. Rule: Atleast one middle term in the premise should be distributed to give conclusion. If both are undistributed then no conclkusion. In the given question both are undistributed hence no conclusion.

 Udaya said: (Sat, Nov 3, 2012 07:39:31 AM) Please any can explain clearly?

 Vipin said: (Tue, Jan 22, 2013 11:30:56 AM) Only the 1st conclusion follows. The two statements are universal affirmative, so in this case the answer should be either universal affirmative or particular affirmative, there can't be a negative statement as conclusion.

 Kumar said: (Sun, Feb 3, 2013 04:17:52 PM) How to find extreme terms in logical reasoning?

 Mayank said: (Wed, May 1, 2013 11:33:57 PM) What is extreme term and how to find it?

 Sathish said: (Fri, Sep 13, 2013 07:51:45 PM) All (Universal affirmative statement) bags (+) are cakes (-). All (Universal affirmative statement) lamps (+) are cakes (-). Here the middle term is cakes (both are minus). At least one plus (+) should contain to follow the conclusion). So here both are minus. Answer is no conclusion.

 Soumya said: (Thu, Sep 26, 2013 01:46:39 PM) Since middle term is not distributed no conclusions can be drawn.

 Vik said: (Fri, Oct 25, 2013 05:02:28 PM) So. If the task were to find SP conclusion - then there should be no conclusion since M was undistributed in both premises. However, if we draw some circles - we will see that either I or II follows. (that is why we cannot make SP conclusion. But can solve this task).

 Vikas said: (Sun, Oct 27, 2013 01:09:13 AM) Please explain extreme terms?

 Prashant said: (Wed, Nov 6, 2013 01:08:08 PM) If the middle term is not distributed then how could we drawn any conclusion i.e. the answer must be no conclusion and as far as the given options is concerned the answer must be neither I nor II rather than the either I or II. Please reply what is the correct answer I'm quiet confused.

 Srinath said: (Sun, Dec 15, 2013 11:49:07 AM) Guys do these all kinds of logical deductions by drawing vernier diagrams, then you will not get confusion.

 Vyzz said: (Sun, Jul 20, 2014 03:34:54 PM) Why can't all bags be lamps? So is option 'C' correct?

 Pranav Vikram said: (Fri, Aug 8, 2014 10:11:02 PM) All bags are cakes. All lamps are cakes. (Venn Diagram Approach). Draw a rectangle, name it "cakes" Lamps and bags will come inside this rectangle, right? Now draw a circle inside the rectangle and name it "bags" Now for lamps there are two cases, i.We can draw a circle "lamps" that overlaps with "bags" ii. We can draw a circle that is disjoint from "bags" These are the two options. At a time only one can be true right? (Because two circles can never intersect and be disjoint at the same time). So the answer is Either.

 Sanchita said: (Sat, Aug 9, 2014 09:28:40 PM) What exactly do we have to follow? the venn diagram approach or subject predicate distributed undistributed conclusions ?

 Micheal said: (Sun, Aug 31, 2014 11:17:17 AM) Can anyone tell me the concept behind this types of problem?

 Shuvam said: (Fri, May 8, 2015 12:42:46 PM) The answer should be D as some lamps are bags and all lamps can also be bags. So here lies the confusion. So the conclusion can be challenged and thus it is D none follows.

 Ishu said: (Sun, May 24, 2015 08:06:18 PM) I think as the middle term is not used in any of the premises conclusion cannot be made. Anyone please clarify my doubt?

 Achintya said: (Sat, Aug 1, 2015 12:30:04 AM) Middle term is not distributed once so no conclusion can be derived.

 Prakash said: (Thu, Sep 3, 2015 12:53:02 PM) Positive questions could result in only positive conclusions. Hence the answer is A.

 Dayakar said: (Wed, Dec 16, 2015 06:55:43 AM) Can you please give clarity on extreme terms?